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file icon ECharts: Balancing Design and Implementation (2002)
In this paper we argue that the semantics of UML Statecharts, while adequate for design, is inappropriate for implementation. To address the issues raised, we propose a language, ECharts, that incorporates modifications to UML Statecharts. We argue that the ECharts semantics strike the right balance between supporting design and supporting implementation. We compare ECharts language features with comparable features in UML Statecharts and ROOMcharts. We draw motivating examples from an IP-based telecom services platform which uses our implementation of ECharts on a daily basis for design and implementation. This is an old paper (2002) so the language syntax is outdated and some of the language features have changed a bit (notably 'return value' semantics). However this paper provides the justification for why we embarked on developing yet another language rather than adopting one of the existing Statecharts dialects.
file icon ECharts: From Lab to Production (2005)
This paper summarizes our experience with ECharts, a state machine language that played a key role in the design and implementation of AT&T CallVantage, a nationally deployed voice-over-IP service. The introduction outlines the history of the language, including the original design requirements for the language, our realization that existing languages did not meet the requirements, and the evolution of the language as the project moved from prototype to production software. The language features most relevant to modularity and efficient use of resources are presented, and the operational semantics is summarized. Finally, ongoing work on new language features and on using ECharts to model BoxTalk, a telecommunication service programming language, is discussed. This is a more recent paper (2005) that provides a nice historical overview of the language and a quick look at the language features. However, the paper isn't so new that it uses the current language syntax.
file icon Timed Transition Activation Semantics in Statecharts (2005)
We propose an intuitive semantics for timed transition activation in hierarchical state machine languages like UML Statecharts or Harel Statecharts. The semantics presented here explain precisely when the timer implicitly associated with a timed transition is activated, and possibly deactivated, during a machine's execution. In addition to the semantics, a decision procedure is given which serves to determine if a timed transition should be activated. These semantics serve as a necessary contribution towards the goal of formalizing Statecharts languages, and towards the ultimate goal of performing quantitative, temporal analysis of unrestricted Statecharts models.
file icon Application Composition in the SIP Servlet Environment (2007)
This paper, presented at ICC 2007 describes application composition as it applies to the JSR 289 SIP Servlet 1.1 specification. Also described is the implementation of a 289-style application router for JSR 116 SIP Servlet 1.0 containers. This is the same implementation that can be downloaded from echarts.org as part of the ECharts for SIP Servlets DK or as a standalone library.

Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE.
file icon ECharts for SIP Servlets: a state-machine programming environment for VoIP applications (2007)
A paper presented at IPTComm 2007. The paper provides a nice 10 page summary of ECharts and ECharts for SIP Servlets version 2.0.
file icon SIP Application Composition - IPTComm 2007 Tutorial Presentation
The slides presented at Eric Cheung's and Hal Purdy's IPTComm 2007 tutorial entitled "A Standards Based Software Environment for Providing SIP Application Composition". A nice overview of SIP application composition and its support in the upcoming JSR 289 SIP Servlet standard.
file icon An Application Router for SIP Servlet Application Composition (Draft 2008)
This paper, accepted at ICC 2008, describes the Distributed Feature Composition application router (DFC-AR) that is available as part of the ECharts for SIP Servlets DK or as a separate download. The DFC-AR has been proposed as the default AR in the SIP Servlet 1.1 reference implementation (as specified by JSR 289).

Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE.
file icon ClickToDial with ECharts for SIP Servlets: A Case Study
This document presents a case study using the ECharts for SIP Servlets framework to develop a click-to-dial IP telecommunications application. The click-to-dial application is a converged one, that is, it possesses both a SIP component for managing phone calls and an HTTP component for managing a web-based user interface. The goal of this study is to familiarize developers with the benefits of using the open source ECharts for SIP servlets framework; a framework to develop SIP servlets. The approach taken is to “hijack” a traditional implementation of the click-to-dial application and then replace its SIP servlet with one developed using ECharts for SIP Servlets. A comparison of the original and revised examples reveals how simple it is to develop re-usable, composeable, maintainable SIP servlets using ECharts for SIP Servlets. The document includes instructions for building, deploying and running the click-to-dial application.
file icon An Introduction to ECharts: The Concise User Manual (2008-05-20 v1.3-beta)
This document provides a concise example-driven overview of the ECharts language and its features. Many simple examples are provided to familiarize the reader with the language’s textual and graphical syntax, and its semantics. The document also provides instructions for compiling, executing, debugging and generating documentation for ECharts machines.
file icon Rapid Converged Telecom Application Development with E4SS, Grails and SailFin
ECharts for SIP Servlets (E4SS) is a development framework that enables rapid development of SIP protocol-based telecom applications for deployment on SIP servlet application servers like the open source SailFin server. Grails is a rapid web application development framework. This document provides a tutorial-style description of using E4SS, Grails and SailFin to implement, build and run a simple converged telecom application.
file icon A Framework for Converged Telecom Services and Mashups (2008)
We describe a light-weight, Java-based framework for SIP servlet 1.1 containers that enables the development of modular, reusable telecom features suitable for integration into converged services. We show how the framework supports interaction between a feature and its external environment and how it facilitates the discovery task in different scenarios. We also discuss how the framework enables feature reusability and provide representative examples of reusable features that use the framework. Finally we discuss how this framework can be utilized to support telecom service ``mashups'': customized web services that incorporate telecom services with other services. We also discuss issues that arise when incorporating telecom services into mashups.
file icon Converged IP Telecom Services and Mashups
A presentation made at the IIT VoIP Conference and Expo. Abstract: Convergence isn't just happening for devices, it's also happening for applications. Application convergence provides a user experience that seamlessly blends hitherto separate application domains. Web services, service-oriented architectures and service mashups are touted as technologies that will enable application convergence but, unfortunately, IP telecommunications applications aren't readily handled by these approaches. On the other hand, integrating IP telecommunications services with web services holds enormous potential for rapidly developing customized telecom applications. In this talk I will discuss the challenges associated with developing converged telecom services and the technologies and standards that are emerging to address these challenges.
file icon Voice-over-IP applications using open standards and open source software - a case study
A presentation made at the IIT VoIP Conference and Expo. Abstract: Over the last few years, a number of VoIP open standards aimed towards the development community have emerged. For example, the Parlay API, JAIN SLEE, the SIP Servlet API, and the media server control API all aim to help developers build VoIP and converged applications more easily. At the same time, a number of open source application servers, media servers, development tools, libraries and test tools have become available that support these standards. We believe that the availability of these standards and software have created opportunities to a large developer base who previously was prohibited from developing VoIP applications. The environment is ripe for rapid growth in new applications and service offerings, especially in the space of third-party applications and communication applications integrated with web sites. In this talk, we will discuss our experience with applying open source software to various stages of communication application projects lifecycle. The technologies include: ECharts for SIP Servlets for development, the Distributed Feature Composition Application Router for runtime application selection and composition, the SailFin SIP servlet container for deployment, the KitCAT converged applications test tool for unit and system testing. We believe that the maturity of these technologies and the gentler learning curve have lowered the barrier of entry, and should encourage a large developer base to innovate and bring new ideas in communications to fruition.
file icon KitCAT - A Framework for Converged Application Testing

There is a growing demand for IP based multimedia services that encompass usage of multiple user interfaces including web and telephony. The complexity of such converged applications require sophisticated development tools and techniques and as a result a variety of technologies and standards have been developed or are in the process of development to address the complexity of application development and deployment. For example, application servers implementing the SIP servlet standard aids the application developer with development of SIP based applications and this, in conjunction with HTTP servlet standard, aids the development of converged applications based on the HTTP and SIP protocols. While such standards and tools enable the application developer to develop and deploy complex applications, there is a growing need for tools and techniques that can help application developers to do system level functional testing of converged applications. This paper makes the following contributions - (1) describes a conceptual model for testing converged applications (2) introduces a simple programming model for test case writers to exercise and test converged applications and (3) describes our converged application testing framework KitCAT that is a concrete implementation of (1) and (2).

file icon KitCAT User Manual
This manual guides a user through installing KitCAT and then getting started with KitCAT test cases.
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